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I'm giving a half dozen MEF talks this summer and I'm frequently asked "what happens if a part isn't available". The old answer was "the system crashes, how could it do anything else?" This conversation definitely deflates the upbeat mood of a MEF talk. Recently, MEF has changed, making that answer obsolete.
MEF is a composition container which satisfies imports by tracking down associated exports. The correct number of exports to satisfy each import is called the cardinality and can be one, zero to one or zero to many. Thus an import can fail because there are too few or too many matching exports.
In the MEF previews 1-5 (inclusive) and in the Visual Studio CTPs and beta1, MEF throws an exception when a failure occurs.
MEF Preview 6, released last Monday, introduces "stable composition." With stable composition, the container can know about, but not expose parts. If a part fails on a cardinality rule, the MEF container remembers the part, but keeps it hidden. If additional composition occurs (such as through the Refresh method) additional attempts to fully compose the part occur. If its cardinality is fulfilled, the part becomes available for additional composition. You can think of this as "if a missing sub part shows up later, the containing part will become available."
There are both good and bad aspects of this, and it definitely affects how you think of and write your MEF systems. In general, it will make MEF apps more stable. If you design a plug-in model, and the creator of a plug-in fails to properly deploy (or a confused user deletes some but not all of a plug-in via File Explorer), your system will not crash. The containing part, which would probably fail if run, doesn't appear in composition. This makes your system more robust against errors that are beyond your control. It also allows the late composition strategy, although I'm not yet clear on good scenarios for it.
The down side is that you may have more challenges finding certain types of composition errors because you will not receive an exception - you need to catch the current state of the composition container. And if you don't consider this behavior when writing your app, you can get officially bad behavior.
In a plug-in design such as the directory composition model, any part in your system can fail on a cardinality (and could previously have crashed) because all parts can be made of other parts with dependencies you don't know about.
For example, consider creating a main menu as a part and that menu is made up of menu items and sub menus and one of the menu items cannot be composed due to a deeply nested cardinality failure. If each main menu item is a part and you import the menu items as a collection using the ImportMany attribute, you're fine. Your application will simply not display the failed menu item.As deep as the nesting goes, each layer that is a collection is naturally protected because cardinality failures just remove one part from the collection.
If instead you create your main menu to explicitly expect a particular menu item (such as a Tools sub menu) and that menu has a required Import for a part and so on down to a point of cardinality failure, then the failure cascades up the chain. This happens because the leaf cardinality failure means that part is not available, causing a cardinality failure at the next level. In this hypothetical case, the failure cascades all the way up to the main menu which does not now exist. The application either runs without a main menu, or the application fails because the main menu is missing.
You can avoid this by considering the intent of each import and providing appropriate protection. Some parts are optional and your application can run just fine without them. These should either be in a collection (ImportMany in recent previews) or not required. Other parts are important, but not important enough to cause their container to fail. These can be managed via asserts, and communication with support or the user. If parts are critical to the application running, then you need to check that they exist after composition and shut down the application as gracefully as possible.
I think this is a good change, but at least until more patterns emerge, you need to consider what would happen if any import is not successfully satisfied. Should the containing part also fail to be composed?
MEF is a very sharp knife. It cuts up the tomatoes and carrots really well and we can have a dandy stew. Or we can wind up in the emergency room. Understanding MEF is important to safe MEF use.
You can find more on the Preview 6 changes in this post by Nicholas Blumhardt who is a member of the MEF team. I'd like to thank Glenn Block for his discussions with me on this change.